2 months



What is Rotavirus?


Rotavirus is the major cause of diarrheal illness in young children worldwide and causes 10-20% of deaths due to gastroenteritis in developing countries.

This highly contagious virus almost always infects the children before their 5th birthday. The most common symptoms associated with this infection includes, severe diarrhea, fever and vomiting.

Know the Virus:

The rotavirus is a member of the Reoviridae family of viruses and contains double-stranded RNA enclosed by a double-shelled outer layer (capsid). Infection with different strains of the virus is possible, so it is common to have several separate rotavirus infections in childhood.

Rotavirus infects the bowels, causing severe inflammation of the stomach and bowels (gastroenteritis). It is the most common cause of severe diarrhea among infants and children throughout the world and results in death of about 500,000 children worldwide annually. The name rotavirus comes from the characteristic wheel-like appearance of the virus when viewed by electron microscopy (the name rotavirus is derived from the Latin rota, meaning “wheel”).

Risk Factors:

Since rotavirus infection is highly contagious, those who are around infected people are at high risk of infection. For this reason, children in group day-care settings are at risk. However, most children will become infected with rotavirus by 5 years of age.

Signs and Symptoms:

  • Watery Diarrhea
  • Fever
  • Vomiting
  • Abdominal Pain


Symptoms generally persist for three to nine days. Immunity from repeated infection is incomplete after a rotavirus infection, but repeated infections tend to be less severe than the original infection.

Rotavirus infection can be associated with severe dehydration in infants and children. Severe dehydration can lead to death in rare cases.

Parents should monitor their children and should also be aware of symptoms of dehydration.

Symptoms of Dehydration:


  • lethargy,
  • dry, cool skin,
  • absence of tears when crying,
  • dry or sticky mouth,
  • sunken eyes or sunken fontanel (the soft spot on the head of infants), and
  • Extreme thirst.



The diagnosis of rotavirus may be made by rapid detection of rotavirus in stool specimens. Strains of rotavirus may be further characterized by special testing with enzyme immunoassay or polymerase chain reaction, but such testing is not commonly available or necessary.


There is no specific treatment for rotavirus. The symptomatic treatment consists of increased fluid intake (oral rehydration) to prevent dehydration.


Vaccination is the most effective preventive measure and is very effective in preventing severe rotavirus disease in young children and infants.

There are two rotavirus vaccines known as RotaTeq and Rotarix. Both are given orally and do not require an injection. The rotavirus vaccines are most effective if the first dose is given before age 15 weeks, and all doses should be complete by 8 months of age.

  • RotaTeq (RV5) is given on a schedule of three doses at ages 2 months, 4 months, and 6 months.
  • Rotarix (RV1) is given on a schedule of two doses at ages 2 months and 4 months.

Side effects of the vaccine are very uncommon. As with all vaccines, rare allergic reactions may occur.



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9 months



Influenza (Flu) Vaccine first dose is given at 6 month and older

What is Influenza (Flu)?

Flu or Influenza is the seasonal virus that affects almost everyone at least once a year. Accompanied by coughs, high fever and runny nose, this virus can transfer from one person to another as it is airborne. This symptoms manifest in the patient after one to two days of exposure and can last for a week at most. Although, influenza is not life threatening and can be controlled easily, however, if left unchecked and untreated, it can lead to complications. Especially people who are asthmatic, or low immunity, can end up with pneumonia, asthma attacks and in severe cases heart failure.  

Why should my child get it?

The influenza shots, or ‘jabs’ are a preventive measure to stop your child from catching the virus from their surroundings and to stop him from spreading it around as well. These shots will save you a lot of sleepless nights, and restless discomfort for your child as well.

When shall I get my child vaccinated?

If your child is older than 6 months, then you should get them the shots every year. However, some kids, with lower immunity levels or who are physically weak may require the shots twice a year to keep them protected from the yearly flares. For pregnant mothers, it is a good practice to get yourself vaccinated during pregnancy as it will keep your child safe for a few months after they are born

What are the side-effects?

There are no serious side-effects of the vaccine. Apart from the fact that the children may fees a slight bit of soreness and discomfort on their arm or leg where the shot was administered. This muscle ache has nothing to do with the actual flu or the virus, but is due to the injection itself.  


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9months and older



What is polio vaccine?

What is polio?

Poliomyelitis is a disease caused by polio virus. Polio virus enters the body through the mouth. It can cause some serious illness;

  • Paralysis (can’t move arm or leg).
  • Meningitis (irritation of the lining of the brain).
  • It can kill people who get it, usually by paralyzing the muscles that help them breathe. Polio used to be very common in the United States. It paralyzed and killed thousands of people a year before the vaccine was invented.

Why get vaccinated?

Inactivated Polio Vaccine (IPV) can prevent polio.


 A 1916 polio epidemic in the United States killed 6,000 people and paralyzed 27,000 more. In the early 1950’s there were more than 25,000 cases of polio reported each year. Polio vaccination was begun in 1955. By 1960 the number of reported cases had dropped to about 3,000, and by 1979 there were only about 10. The success of polio vaccination has sparked a world-wide effort to eliminate polio.


Polio has been eliminated from the United States. But the disease is still common in some parts of the world. It would only take one person infected with polio virus coming from another country to bring the disease back here if we were not protected by vaccine. If the effort to eliminate the disease from the world is successful, some day we won’t need polio vaccine. Until then, we need to keep getting our children vaccinated because Immunization against polio virus triggers an excellent immune response and long-lasting immunity to all types of polio virus.


When shall children get vaccinated?

IPV is a shot, given in the leg or arm, depending on age. It may be given at the same time as other vaccines.


Children get 4 doses of IPV, at these ages:

  • A dose at 2 months
  • A dose at 4 months
  • A dose at 6-18 months
  • A booster dose at 4-6 years (several different vaccines in the same shot) contain IPV.
  • Children getting these vaccines may get one more (5th) dose of polio vaccine. This is not a problem.

What are the risks from IPV?

Some people who get IPV get a sore spot where the shot was given. IPV has not been known to cause serious problems, and most people don’t have any problems at all with it. However, any medicine could cause a serious side effect, such as a severe allergic reaction but the risk of polio vaccine causing serious harm is extremely small.

Some people should not get IPV or should wait.

These people should not get IPV:

  • Anyone with a life-threatening allergy to any component of IPV, including the antibiotics neomycin, streptomycin or polymyxin B, should not get polio vaccine. Tell your doctor if you have any severe allergies.
  • Anyone who had a severe allergic reaction to a previous polio shot should not get another one.

These people should wait:

  • Anyone who is moder9months and olderately or severely ill at the time the shot is scheduled should usually wait until they recover before getting polio vaccine. People with minor illnesses, such as a cold, may be vaccinated.

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Hepatis B Vaccine first dose is given at birth

What is Hepatitis B?

Hepatitis B is a liver disease caused by the Hepatitis B virus. It is more common in children from the

Africa, Asia and Eastern Europe. Hepatitis B can be of two kinds, chronic and acute. Children who are

infected in early age can develop a chronic state of the disease which can lead to cirrhosis – liver disease

– and liver cancer. It is a viral infection and can get transmitted, however as opposed to the popular

belief the only someone can catch it is through blood, and bodily fluids such as semen.

The symptoms of Hepatitis B are as follows:

 fever

 muscle, joint and stomach aches

 tiredness

 dark urine

 yellow eyes and pale skin

 loss of appetite

 diarrhoea

 nausea and vomiting

Why should My Child get it?

The Hepatitis B vaccine reduces the risk of your child getting infected by the virus considerably. The first

step toward protection is getting your child vaccinated. Infants are at a greater risk of getting the virus

and a majority of people living with the chronic case of Hepatitis B were infected as infants. There are no

serious side-effects of the vaccine. Apart from the pain of the shot and a mild fever, which will dissipate

within a few hours of the shot, your child will not be in any major discomfort.

When shall I get My Child Vaccinated?

Hepatitis B vaccine is given in three doses.

1. The First Dose is administered within the a few hours of birth. If the mother is a Hepatitis B virus

carrier then the child is vaccinated as soon as possible.

2. The Second Dose can be given in between 1 and 3 months of the child.

3. The Third Dose is administered from 6 through 18 months of the child.

In some cases the child might require a fourth dose, for that you can consult your physician.

Make healthy choices for your family and keep an updated vaccine calendar to prevent rather than cure.

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Babies’ Diet Plan

After a child is born, a mother realizes how harder it’s only going to get as the child is going to grow older. They are not sure what to feed the child with and are often worried because of it. To help ease their mind and put their worries to rest, we have produced this article.

From the time of birth to 4 months, the feeding behavior consists of breastfeeding or formula. Rooting reflex helps your baby to turn toward a nipple to find nourishment. As your baby’s digestive tract is still developing, no solid food is allowed for now.

By the time your child reaches the age of 4 to 6 months, you will want to shift to solid foods but know that it doesn’t matter whether your baby is breastfed or bottle-fed, there’s no rush to start solids. However, you can let the baby eat solid food if it can hold his/her head up, sits well in a highchair, makes chewing motions, shows significant weight gain and weighs at least 13 pounds, shows interest in food and/or can close mouth around a spoon. You can feed it breast milk or formula, and in case of solid food, you can feed it following:

  • Pureed vegetables (sweet potatoes, squash)
  • Pureed fruit (apples, bananas, peaches)
  • Pureed meat (chicken, beef)
  • Semi-liquid, iron-fortified cereal

The next question of how much per day can you feed; begin with 1 teaspoon pureed food or cereal. Mix cereal with 4 to 5 teaspoons breast milk or formula. Then increase to 1 tablespoon of pureed food or 1 tablespoon of cereal mixed with breast milk or formula. You may give it twice a day.

Next, for the ages between 6 and 8 months, it is essential that your child shows an interest in food. If he/she doesn’t, don’t hesitate to see a doctor. The feed is same as the above (for 4 to 6 months). You can include the following:

  • Pureed tofu
  • Small amounts of unsweetened yogurt (no cow’s milk until age 1)
  • Pureed legumes (black beans, chickpeas, edamame, fava beans, black-eyed peas, lentils, kidney beans)
  • Iron-fortified cereal (oats, barley)

Again, start with a teaspoon fruit; then gradually increase it to 2 or 3 tablespoons. Same for the vegetables and for cereal, 3 to 9 tablespoons would be fine.

As the child reaches a period between the ages of 8 to 10 months, there are only minute changes to his/her diet. You will notice how your baby will pick up objects with a pincer grasp and can transfer items from one hand to the other. In addition to what you were feeding before, add small amounts of soft pasteurized cheese and cottage cheese, mashed vegetables, mashed fruits, finger foods (O-shaped cereal, small bits of scrambled eggs, well-cooked pieces of potato, well-cooked spiral pasta, teething crackers, and small pieces of bagel) and proteins. From teaspoons and tablespoons shift to cups.

Lastly, during 10 to 12 months, you may feed your child soft pasteurized cheese, yogurt, cottage cheese fruit mashed or cut into cubes or strips, bite-size, soft-cooked vegetables, combo foods (macaroni and cheese, casseroles), proteins, finger foods and iron-fortified cereals (barley, wheat, oats, mixed cereals).

Following this, your child will be healthiest and will grow according to his/her age.

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At what age should a child start doing what

Raising a kid efficiently is as tough as giving birth to one, really. If you think your job is done after taking the pain of 9 months of pregnancy, the struggles of labor and the trouble of delivery; then you are wrong. Your job doesn’t end with the entry of your mini-me into this world rather it is an indication for you to get into a new journey, a long roller-coaster ride. So if you are new parents or going to be one soon, keep in mind that this calls for a lot of stuff to handle.

From changing diapers to taking care of them, parents have to be concerned about everything regarding their kids making sure they are safe, sound and healthy. Nothing are more alarming and demanding than health concerns. You have to make sure your kid eats on proper time and in required amount, his habits are not unhealthy, he is responsive and not dull, his sleep cycle is good, his physique and weight is according to the set measures, he is interactive with the surroundings and there is nothing unusual that might put you in a big worry.

In this regard the aspect that always takes a lot of attention from the parents is the right time for their child to start sitting, walking and speaking. Every kid is different than the other one. Some starts walking and try to sit earlier than others while some do it late. The right time for a healthy child to start trying to walk is between 9 months to 12 months. Majority of the kids are walking properly by the age of 14 and 15 months. This is the standard recommended time by health professionals. There is wide age of normal age kids to start walking. Deviation from this set age is seen frequently. Some of the kids start walking by the age of 17 months. Similarly, a child will try to talk by the age of 18 months to 2 years. They do response earlier than this but in an unclear attempt. However, the clear speech is heard in this set age limit. Also, a child attempts to sit by the age of 7 months. Some might try to sit on their own in failed attempts even earlier than this phase.

Since every individual differs from the other, variation must be expected and one should not fret over a delay in their kid’s activity right away as there is always a window for the unusual. However, a prolonged delay in the above-stated activities by the kids as long as that till the age of 6-7 years should worry you and must grab your attention. It is an indication to consult a professional pediatrician, discuss the situation and give all the details about your child in order to exclude any chance of suspected illness, muscle weakness or any other compromise on health.

Remember, parenting is beautiful but with a lot of responsibilities, show patience and enjoy it!

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